Single atoms and atom-like defects in solids are ideal quantum light sources and memories for quantum networks. However, most atomic transitions are in the ultraviolet-visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, where propagation losses in optical fibers are prohibitively large. We tackle this problem directly by using single erbium(Er3+) ions in a solid-state host, observing for the first time the emission of single photons from a single Er3+ ion, whose optical transition at 1.55 µm is in the telecom band, allowing for low-loss propagation in optical fiber. This is enabled by integrating Er3+ ions with silicon nanophotonic structures, which results in a Purcell enhancement of the photon emission rate . By tailoring the electromagnetic environment of an emitter with an optical cavity, cycling optical transitions can be induced for a solid-state atomic defect, which enables single-shot quantumnondemolitionreadout of single Er3+ ion’s electronic spin state with 94.6% fidelity. An outstanding challenge for building larger scale quantum systems with solid-state defects is realizing high-fidelity control over multiple defects with nanoscale separations, which is required to realize strong spin-spin interactions for multi-qubit logic and the creation of entangled states. For optically-addressed spins, it is an open challenge to achieve simultaneous high-fidelity initialization, control, and readout of spins separated by less than the diffraction limit of the addressing light. We developed a frequency domain addressing technique and have realized parallel measurement and coherent control of multiple solid-state spins below the diffraction limit via the ac Stark effect . These results represent a significant step towards realizing scalable quantum networks using single Er3+ ions based quantum network nodes.
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Raha, M., Chen, S.,Phenicie, C. M.,Ourari, S.,Dibos, A. M., & Thompson, J. D. “Optical quantumnondemolitionmeasurement of a single rare earth ion qubit”, Nat.Commun. 11, 1605 (2020).
 S. Chen*, M.Raha*, C. M.Phenicie, S.Ourari, J. D. Thompson, “Parallel Single-Shot Measurement and Coherent Control of Solid-State Spins below the Diffraction Limit”, Science 370, 592 (2020)
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